History The story of Breffu, a female slave from Ghana...

The story of Breffu, a female slave from Ghana who led a massive slave revolt to take over the West Indies in 1733


- Advertisement -

The St. John slave Revolt of 1733

Breffu was an Akwamu leader of the 1733 slave insurrection on St. John (then known as St. Jan) in Danish West Indies. She committed suicide with 23 other rebels to evade capture as the rebellion weakened in 1734.

Breffu was enslaved at a plantation owned by Pieter Krøyer, and lived in Coral Bay. On 23 November 1733, hearing the signal of a canon fired from Fort Fredericksvaern, Breffu entered the main house and killed both Krøyer and his wife. Taking all gunpowder and ammunition, and accompanied by fellow slave Christian, Breffu then proceeded to the Van Stell family house, where she killed three members of the plantation owner’s family.

Some slave masters were able to get off the island on boats and the Akwamu people gained control of most of the territory. Under the leadership of Breffu, the plan of taking over the plantations was successful until the early part of 1734,when the French collaborated with the Danes to take back the island.

On November 23, 1733, the rebellion against their masters started as planned. Going about their regular duties, the slaves had previously hidden knives in wood that they delivered to the fort at Coral Bay. After successfully entering Fort Fredericksvaern, the slaves killed majority of the soldiers in the fort. While they fought, John Gabriel, a soldier, managed to escape and alert the Danish officials, but the alert was too late as the slaves managed to take over the fort and fire the cannon from the fort indicating the takeover.


Back in their plantations, Breffu and other slaves waited patiently for the signal from the fort. The successful firing of the canon indicated that slaves in their plantations could kill their masters. Together with Christian, Breffu raced into the home of her master, Pieter Krøyer and murdered him and his wife. Other slaves followed suit taking all the ammunition and gunpowder they could carry. Breffu continued and killed three members of the Van Stell family, one of the wealthiest families on the island.

A few slave masters managed to escape off the island on their boats, and the Akwamu people took control of most of the island. Their plan was to take over the plantations and use Africans of other descent as slave-labour just as was practised in the Kingdom back in Ghana.

With Breffu as their leader, they were successful until early 1934 when the French military had finally agreed to help the Danes regain the Island and their lost plantations.

In April 1734, during a ritual, Breffu and 23 other Akwamu rebels committed suicide to prevent being captured. Their bodies were found at Browns bay minutes after the suicide ritual. A few weeks later in May, the Akwamus were defeated by the French Military due to the advantage of ammunition. By the end of May, many surviving plantation owners regained their property. The last Akwamu rebels were killed in August, 1734 officially ending the 1733 slave insurrection on St John.

In many accounts of this rebellion it is revealed that until her death, the French military and many slave masters of the West Indies did not know that the leader of the uprising was a woman. Many were shocked at the revelation and were mortified that a woman single handedly led one of the most extended rebellions and take over known in the New World. Breffu is popularly called the ‘Queen of St John’.



  1. “The story of Breffu, a female slave from Ghana who led a massive slave revolt to take over the West Indies in 1733”. Face2Face Africa. 2018-09-03. Retrieved 2019-09-17.
  2. St. John Tradewinds (19 June 2006). “Three Local Queens Embodied in Chautauqua Series”. St. John Tradewinds. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  3. Andrea Milam (5 July 2014). “New Troupes Dance Through Cruz Bay Alongside Old Favorites at 60th Anniversary Festival Parade”. St. John Tradewinds. Retrieved 31 March 2018.


  1. A very heroic rebellion by Breffu. Am sure there were many heroines like her, that are yet to be uncovered by in-depth research. Our heritage, our pride!

  2. Great story about the heart, spirit and bravery of our ancestors.

    It is unfortunate that the Akwamu could not retain their freedom, and even more disconcerting that they reverted to some kind of slavery, I don’t care what the difference and origin of the type of slavery was/is.

    Slavery means you are not free, and you have to work for no compensation, and do as you are told or there are severe consequences for not obeying/complying. We were enslaved by the Arabs and Eureapoens because of the complicity of many of our ancestors, and we have to talk about that as we currently have many We Sick Boss people in our midst. Kanye West, Clarence Thomas, and Ben Carson are perfect examples.

  3. You have made some decent points there. I checked on the
    web to learn more about the issue and found
    most people will go along with your views on this site.

  4. Hi, I do think this is an excellent website. I stumbledupon iit 😉 I will
    come back once again since I book-marked it.
    Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, maay youu be rich and continue to help other people.

  5. My spouse and I absolutely love your blog and find almost all of your post’s to be exactly what I’m looking
    for. Woild you offer guest writers to write content for yourself?
    I wouldn’t mind writing a post or elaborating on many of thhe subjects you wrdite related
    to here. Again, awesome website!

  6. An interesting discussion is worth comment. I believe that you should
    write more on this topic, it may not be a taboo matter
    bbut usually people do not talk about such subjects.
    To the next! Kind regards!!


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Latest news

Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah ‘s Journey of No Return

Today in History, On February 21, 1966, Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah left Ghana for Hanoi, the Democratic Republic of North...

Celebrating Ebony Reigns- 5 Years of her departure

Today is exactly 5 years since Priscilla Opoku Kwarteng, a.k.a. Ebony Reigns passed, in a very horrible vehicle accident...

Nii Kwabena Bonne II- Today in History led a boycott of all European goods

Today in History, Nii Kwabena Bonne II organized a boycott of all European goods in response to their high...

Rosemond Nkansah – first female Ghanaian police

Rosemond Nkansah, the first Ghanaian woman to be enlisted into the Ghana Police Service, then the Gold Coast Police...

Melody Millicent Danquah, first female Ghanaian pilot

Melody Millicent Danquah, She was Ghana's First Female Pilot and Squadron Leader. She was the first to...

Nana Yaa Asantewaa dies in Seychelles (Today in History)

Today in History, On October 17, 1921, Nana Yaa Asantewaa, Queen mother of Ejisu and a great warrior of...

Must read

Ghana National Grand Mosque, second Largest in West Africa.

Ghana National Grand Mosque, it is the second largest...

Ghana confirms new cases of Coronavirus

The Ghana Health Service (GHS) has confirmed five (5)...
- Advertisement -

You might also likeRELATED
Recommended to you

Translate »